A group of body-positive activists want to prove that body acceptance and health arenâ€™t contradictory and losing weight shouldnâ€™t be a personâ€™s ultimate goal.
Jeanette DePatie is a bubbly aerobics instructor with boundless energy and enthusiasm for helping people achieve their fitness goals.
She is also, in her own words, fat.
But being fat, DePatie says, is simply another character trait, just like being short, brunette, and having hazel eyes â€” none of which impacts her health status.
Dubbing herself â€œThe Fat Chick,â€ DePatie proudly challenges stereotypes of what larger bodies can accomplish with the mantra â€œevery body can exercise.â€
And in her efforts to highlight behaviors over body type as a measure of good health, she joined a movement called â€œbody positiveâ€ that hopes to shake up conventions about what it truly means to be healthy.
At its core, body acceptance is the recognition and celebration of body types. And in a culture that tends to value thinness as the feminine ideal, the movement has particularly resonated among larger-bodied women.
Body-positive activism has also channeled into a greater discussion of health that encompasses diverse body types. But as the movement progresses, body- positive activists are forced to contend with a culture that views good health and larger bodies as incompatible.
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Promoting Health Through Body Acceptance
For people like Harriet Brown, body acceptance has been life changing.
The professor of magazine journalism at Syracuse University has written extensively about issues of weight and body image, including her personal struggles.
After years of yo-yo dieting, self-loathing, and frustration, a therapistâ€™s suggestion that Brown could be at peace with her body was an intimidating, yet exciting, prospect.
â€œIt had never occurred to me that you could be OK with your body, whether it was thin, fat, or in-between,â€ she said.
Brown has written a book, â€œBody of Truth: How Science, History and Culture Drive Our Obsession with Weight â€” and What We Can Do About It.â€
Throughout Brownâ€™s journey toward accepting her body, her research and reporting have often focused on a theory called Health at Every Size (HAES) that has become central to the discussion of body positivity.
The theory boils down to a focus on health regimens that work for individual bodies, rather than striving to reach a certain body size.
And as is the case with many tenets of body acceptance, HAES is subject to plenty of criticism.
â€œThereâ€™s a strong misperception that anyone who talks about body positivity or fat acceptance or Health at [Every] Size [is] really saying is â€˜Oh, I give everyone permission to sit on the couch and eat bonbons all the time,â€ Brown said.
â€œIf thatâ€™s your personal choice thatâ€™s your personal choice,â€ but â€œthis is about saying thereâ€™s more to health than that one single number,â€ she said.
The idea that body positivity serves as a license to take part in poor health behaviors is one that proponents reject as an incorrect interpretation of the movementâ€™s mission.
â€œBody positivity is not saying itâ€™s an excuse to be fat or unhealthy, but itâ€™s a way of saying we donâ€™t need to put each other down and we donâ€™t need to put ourselves down,â€ said Dr. Christopher Leeth, licensed professional counselor, assistant director of counseling at the University of the Incarnate Word and lecturer at University of Texas at San Antonio.
HAES flips the discourse on how the outcomes of health-centered behaviors are viewed, placing value on behaviors that promote holistic health to support people physically and emotionally.
â€œThe big thing is tuning into yourself,â€ Brown said. â€œHow do you feel? Paying attention to that rather than the messages that are coming at us from so many different directions.â€
In broadening the scope of what is deemed healthy, HAES also challenges people to consider the language typically associated with health.
â€œEvery time that word [diet comes up], we always associate it with body shape, when the emphasis should be on a healthy diet that makes you feel good,â€ Leeth said.
One vocal proponent of the cause is Ragen Chastain, who has taken the principles of HAES to heart and educates others on the movementâ€™s uplifting outlook.
While heavier in build, Chastain has always been athletic. She says her body size has never prevented her from engaging in a range of invigorating physical activity.
Rather, negative assumptions about her weight have been the greatest barrier to fulfillment.
â€œI feel like Iâ€™ve never suffered from obesity but I have suffered from the oppression around it,â€ Chastain said. â€œI spent so much time hating my body for not looking like a photoshopped model that I didnâ€™t have any gratitude for what my body did for me.â€
Now she puts her energy toward the healthful behaviors she loves most, particularly dancing. She has found both joy and exercise in competitive dancing.
She documents her experiences and musings on her popular blog, Dances With Fat. Sheâ€™s also currently training for her first Ironman triathlon.
Criticisms of Health at Every Size
As HAES emphasizes, the thinnest body isnâ€™t necessarily the healthiest.
A host of factors impact oneâ€™s overall health status, from genetics to environment. Thereâ€™s also no one magic number on the scale that everyone should aim for, a point that body-positive advocates regularly underscore.
However, while health experts generally agree that itâ€™s difficult to determine a personâ€™s health status without a full physical evaluation, they also stress that extra weight can lead to medical complications down the road.
Many in the medical community argue that regardless of behavior, weight needs to be evaluated.
As the medical director of the Carolinas Weight Management center, Dr. John J. Tomcho, D.O., R.D., is familiar with a variety of body types that donâ€™t fit a single definition of health. However, he does observe an overarching concern.
â€œI see a lot of people obviously with [a] BMI northward of 40, and they can come in and get blood work and be absolutely fine, but that pressure of the extra weight on the body eventually will take its toll,â€ Tomcho said.
He notes the widely documented risks associated with obesity, including diabetes and high cholesterol and blood pressure, but he says the composition of weight rather than weight itself is of the most significance when it comes to health.
â€œWith a high percentage of muscle youâ€™re actually going to be quite healthy,â€ Tomcho said. â€œItâ€™s the fat tissue that causes the majority of the problems and trying to reduce that is key.â€
Leslie Heinberg, Ph.D., director of Behavioral Services at the Bariatric and Metabolic Institute at Cleveland Clinic, also takes a nuanced approach to discussing weight.
With self-care so strongly rooted in body positivity, Heinberg believes that considering the impact of weight should be a component of body-acceptance rhetoric.
â€œPart of loving yourself is taking the best care of your body,â€ she said. â€œThat should be part of that same goal, versus â€˜I love myself just the way I am.â€™â€
Coming to an Understanding
For many body-positive activists, thereâ€™s no question that body size doesnâ€™t necessarily reflect oneâ€™s health status.
While this line of thinking may be problematic to some, remembering why so many larger-bodied individuals feel the need to carve out their own space within the health community is important for deeper understanding.
â€œThe idea of body acceptance and Health at Every Size is so powerful and so hopeful for people turning themselves inside out trying to lose 15 or 20 pounds, trying to reach this idealized [body image] when biologically thatâ€™s not who they are, thatâ€™s not who theyâ€™re destined to be,â€ Heinberg said.
Strip away the noise, and the message is simple, as Heinberg explains.
â€œBody acceptance is really about accepting the body you likely have but still striving to have the healthiest body you could potentially have,â€ she said.