Recent reports of sudden heart problems in people who had smoked marijuana has raised concerns about its safety, especially as more states legalize the drug for medical and recreational use.
â€œMarijuana smoking is becoming more prevalent,â€ said Dr. William Abraham, a cardiologist at Ohio State Universityâ€™s Wexner Medical Center, â€œand this does give us an opportunity to better study and better understand what its health consequences are.â€
Many of the reports involved only one or a few patients, such as the otherwise healthy 21-year-old U.K. man who was a regular marijuana smoker and who suffered a heart attack due to a blood clot in one of the arteries in his heart. The doctors were able to rule out the possibility that the heart attack was caused by atherosclerosis, or a buildup of plaque in the arteries. Another report looked at these three people who needed to be revived with CPR when they developed heart problems after smoking pot.
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Marijuana Not Free of Health Effects
None of these studies, however, are very rigorous â€” the kind you would need in order to show a definitive link between marijuana and heart attacks.
â€œWhen you look retrospectively into databases and pull out bits and pieces of data, and then assemble them and present them, the results can often times be misleading,â€ said Dr. Mark Rabe, chairman of the scientific advisory board for Medical Marijuana Sciences, a company that is researching the anti-cancer potential of marijuana. â€œAnd when you look further into other variables, itâ€™s very difficult to draw conclusions.â€
Marijuana does have some documented effects on the cardiovascular system, including increasing the heart rate by as much as 100 percent, an effect that can last for up to three hours. While some pot smokers report that this becomes less of a problem after continued use, it can be significant enough for people to seek medical help.
â€œItâ€™s not uncommon for us to see marijuana smokers or people who ingest marijuana in other forms â€” in edible forms â€” come to the emergency department with anxiety or agitation associated with heart racing,â€ Abraham said.
There is limited information available on the effects of marijuana, perhaps because people are hesitant to admit to using an illegal drug when they show up in the emergency room. However, there are some reports of more serious cardiovascular problems, such as chest pain, heart attack, irregular heart rhythms, and â€œmini-strokesâ€ known as transient ischemic attacks that are often considered an early warning sign for a full stroke.
â€œThe incidence of those types of more serious events appears to be very low â€” maybe less than a percent risk,â€ said Abraham, â€œbut when you look at a growing population of marijuana smokers or marijuana ingesters, this now may translate into a lot of people.â€
According to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 18.9 million people in the U.S. had used marijuana in the previous month. Even if just one percent of those people experienced cardiovascular effects after lighting up, that is still many thousands of potential problems.
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Higher Risks for Certain Groups
Certain groups of people may be more at risk for cardiovascular problems from smoking marijuana.
â€œPatients who have other risk factors for heart and vascular disease are at higher risk for complications from marijuana ingestion,â€ Abraham said. â€œSo folks who are older, folks who have diabetes or high blood pressure or high cholesterol, folks who also smoke cigarettes â€” the typical risk factors for heart attack and stroke.â€
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