While everyone has specific life stressors, factors related to job pressure, money, health, and relationships tend to be the most common.
Stress can be acute or chronic and lead to fatigue, headaches, upset stomach, nervousness, and irritability or anger.
Regular exercise, adequate sleep, and good nutrition are some of the best ways to better equip your body to combat stress, but several vitamins and supplements can also help.
ishonestâ€™s picks for the best vitamins and supplements for stress
Here are the 7 best vitamins and supplements to help you combat stress.
Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea), is an herb that grows in regions of Russia and Asia.
It has long been known as an adaptogen, a natural, nontoxic herb that stimulates your bodyâ€™s stress response system to increase stress resistance (2).
The adaptogenic properties of Rhodiola are linked to two of the herbâ€™s potent active ingredients â€” rosavin and salidroside (3).
An 8-week study involving 100 people with chronic fatigue symptoms, such as poor sleep quality and impairments in short-term memory and concentration, found that supplementing with 400 mg of Rhodiola extract daily improved symptoms after just 1 week (4).
The symptoms continued to decline throughout the study.
Rhodiola is well tolerated and has a strong safety profile (5, 6, 7).
Getting adequate amounts of quality sleep is important for relieving stress.
Stress is strongly linked to insomnia, a sleep disorder characterized by difficulties falling asleep or staying asleep â€” or both (9, 10).
That said, achieving adequate quality sleep may not be the easiest if youâ€™re under stress, which in turn could worsen its severity.
Melatonin is a natural hormone that regulates your bodyâ€™s circadian rhythm, or sleep-wake cycle. Levels of the hormone increase in the evening when itâ€™s dark to promote sleep and decrease in the morning when itâ€™s light to promote wakefulness.
In a review of 19 studies involving 1,683 people with primary sleep disorders â€” those not caused by another condition â€” melatonin decreased the time it took people to fall asleep, increased total sleep time, and improved overall sleep quality, compared with a placebo (11).
Another review of 7 studies involving 205 people investigated the effectiveness of melatonin for managing secondary sleep disorders, which are those caused by another condition, such as stress or depression.
The review demonstrated that melatonin decreased the time it took people to fall asleep and increased total sleep time but did not significantly affect sleep quality, compared with a placebo (12).
Though melatonin is a natural hormone, supplementing with it does not affect your bodyâ€™s production of it. Melatonin is also non-habit-forming (13).
While melatonin supplements can be purchased over the counter in the United States, they require a prescription in many other countries.
Glycine is an amino acid that your body uses to create proteins.
Studies suggest that glycine may increase your bodyâ€™s resistance to stress by encouraging a good nightâ€™s rest through its calming effect on the brain and ability to lower your core body temperature (15, 16).
A lower body temperature promotes sleep and helps you stay asleep during the night.
In one study, 15 people who had complaints about the quality of their sleep and took 3 grams of glycine before bed experienced less fatigue and increased alertness the following day, compared with a placebo (14).
These effects occurred despite no difference in the time it took to fall asleep or time slept, compared with a placebo, suggesting glycine improved sleep quality.
In a similar study, taking 3 grams of glycine before bedtime was shown to improve measures of sleep quality and performance on memory recognition tasks (17).
Glycine is well tolerated, but taking 9 grams on an empty stomach before bed has been associated with minor stomach upset. That said, taking 3 grams is unlikely to cause any side effects (18).
Keep in mind that although studies show that glycine may be helpful for getting better sleep, more research is needed to prove the benefits of the supplement for reducing stress.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an adaptogenic herb native to India, where it has been used in Indian Ayurveda, one of the worldâ€™s oldest medicinal systems (20).
Similarly to rhodiola, ashwagandha is thought to enhance your bodyâ€™s resilience to physical and mental stress (21).
In one study on the stress-relieving effects of ashwagandha, researchers randomized 60 individuals with mild stress to receive 240 mg of a standardized ashwagandha extract or a placebo daily for 60 days (22).
Compared with the placebo, supplementing with ashwagandha was strongly associated with greater reductions in stress, anxiety, and depression. Ashwagandha was also linked to a 23% reduction in morning levels of cortisol, a stress hormone.
Whatâ€™s more, a review of five studies examining the effects of ashwagandha on anxiety and stress observed that those who supplemented with ashwagandha extract scored better on tests measuring levels of stress, anxiety, and fatigue (23).
L-theanine is an amino acid most commonly found in tea leaves.
It has been studied for its ability to promote relaxation and reduce stress without exerting sedative effects (25, 26).
A review of 21 studies involving nearly 68,000 people found that drinking green tea was associated with reduced anxiety and improvements in memory and attention (27).
These effects were attributed to the synergistic effects of the caffeine and L- theanine in the tea, as each ingredient on its own was found to have a lesser impact.
However, studies suggest that L-theanine by itself may still help relieve stress.
In another study in 34 people, drinking a beverage containing 200 mg of L- theanine and other nutrients lowered levels of the stress hormone cortisol in response to a stressful task that involved multitasking (28).
L-theanine is well tolerated and safe when supplemented with at its effective dose for relaxation, which ranges from 200â€“600 mg per day in capsule form (29, 30).
For comparison, L-theanine comprises 1â€“2% of the dry weight of leaves, corresponding to 10â€“20 mg of L-theanine per commercially available tea bag (31).
That said, drinking tea is unlikely to have any noticeable effect on stress. Nonetheless, many people find the act of drinking tea to be relaxing.
B complex vitamins
B complex vitamins usually contain all eight B vitamins.
These vitamins play an important role in metabolism by transforming the food you eat into usable energy. B vitamins are also essential for heart and brain health (33).
Food sources of B vitamins include grains, meats, legumes, eggs, dairy products, and leafy greens.
Interestingly, high doses of B vitamins have been suggested to improve symptoms of stress, such as mood and energy levels, by lowering blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine (34, 35, 36).
High levels of homocysteine are associated with stress and an increased risk of several conditions, including heart disease, dementia, and colorectal cancer (37, 38, 39, 40).
Whatâ€™s more, a review of 8 studies involving 1,292 people found that taking a multivitamin and mineral supplement improved several aspects of mood, including stress, anxiety, and energy (41).
Another study observed similar results, suggesting that supplementing with B vitamins as part of a multivitamin and mineral supplement may improve mood and stress by lowering homocysteine levels (42).
However, itâ€™s unclear whether people who already have low homocysteine levels will experience these same effects.
Vitamin B complex supplements are generally safe when taken within the recommended dosage ranges. However, they may cause harmful side effects like nerve pain when taken in large amounts. Plus, theyâ€™re water-soluble, so your body excretes any excess through urine (43).
Kava (Piper methysticum) is a tropical evergreen shrub native to the South Pacific islands (45).
Its roots have traditionally been used by Pacific Islanders to prepare a ceremonial beverage called kava, or kava kava.
Kava contains active compounds called kavalactones, which have been studied for their stress-reducing properties.
Kavalactones are thought to inhibit the breakdown of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that decreases the activity of your nervous system, producing a calming effect. This can help relieve feelings of anxiety and stress (46).
A review of 11 studies involving 645 people found that kava extract relieved anxiety, a common reaction to stress (47, 48).
However, another review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to confirm that kava relieves anxiety (44).
Serious side effects like liver damage have been linked to kava supplements, likely due to supplement adulteration or the use of less expensive parts of the kava plant, such as the leaves or stems, instead of the roots (49).
Kava is not a controlled substance in the United States, but several European countries have regulatory measures in place to limit its sale (50).
Many things, such as job, money, health, or relationship factors, can cause stress.
Several vitamins and other supplements have been linked to reduced stress symptoms, including Rhodiola rosea, melatonin, glycine, and ashwagandha.
L-theanine, B complex vitamins, and kava may also help increase your bodyâ€™s resistance to lifeâ€™s stressors.
Always talk with your doctor before trying a new supplement, especially if youâ€™re taking other medications, pregnant, or planning to become pregnant.
If stress continues to be a problem in your life, consider speaking with a medical professional or therapist about possible solutions.
DIY Bitters for Stress
If youâ€™re interested in trying one of the suggested supplements above, you can find them locally or online:
- B complex vitamins kava
Keep in mind that some of these are illegal or only available via prescription outside of the United States.
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