More than 300,000 Americans are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year â€” a figure that has nearly tripled since the 1990s, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). While itâ€™s not clear whatâ€™s causing the upswing in tick populations and bite-related infections, ticks have been expanding their geographic range.
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Despite the prevalence of ticks and the exposure theyâ€™ve garnered in the news, many people are still in the dark about tick-borne diseases. The CDC reports that a national survey shows that 20 percent of people living in an area where Lyme disease is common were not aware of the risks. And those risks are substantial. â€œSomewhere between 20% and 40% of blacklegged ticks carry Lyme,â€ says Richard Ostfeld, PhD, a distinguished senior scientist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in New York.
Hereâ€™s a primer on the best ways to avoid ticks, how to identify their bites, and what to do about a bite if one is discovered.
Ticks Donâ€™t Fly or Jump, but They Can Climb Onto You If You Get Close Enough
Ticks are not fliers or jumpers. Theyâ€™re crawlers â€” and poor ones at that, Dr. Ostfeld says. â€œThey donâ€™t move fast at all,â€ he says.
To get onto your body, ticks like to climb over low plants, foliage, logs, or other close-to-the-ground objects. From there, they grasp the object with their back legs while reaching out with their front legs in an act researchers call questing.
When you brush past, the questing tick grabs hold of your shoes or pants or skin and then makes its way upward until it finds a safe, inconspicuous spot to sink its mouthparts into your flesh, Ostfeld says. â€œThey like those tucked-away places where the skin is soft and where they can hide without being detected,â€ he adds, mentioning the backs of the knees, the armpits, the back of the neck, and the groin as favorite locations.
Once attached to your skin, a tick will stay there for several days, slowly gorging itself on your blood before dropping off on its own. Ticks must feed on a host at every stage of their life cycle in order to survive.
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How Do I Know If Iâ€™ve Been Bitten by a Tick?
Detecting tick bites can be tricky. Unlike the bites of mosquitoes and other insects, tick bites do not tend to cause itching or immediate skin irritation.
â€œEvery blood-feeding arthropod and insect introduces saliva into the wound,â€ explains Jonathan Day, PhD, a professor of medical entomology at the University of Florida. In the case of mosquitoes and some other biting insects, this saliva contains proteins that prevent the bite wound from clotting, which would slow the outflow of blood and therefore disrupt feeding, Dr. Day explains.
But tick bites are different. â€œTicks suppress that reaction with immunosuppressants in their saliva,â€ Ostfeld explains.
Since you canâ€™t feel a tickâ€™s bite, you can detect it in one of two ways:
- By spotting or feeling a tick on your skin
- By identifying a bite once the tick has dropped off
If the Tick Is Still Attached ...
Finding a tick on your skin can be quite difficult, Ostfeld says â€” especially during the spring and early-summer months when ticks are in their nymph stage, and so are roughly the size of a poppy seed. You have to closely examine your skin â€” and have a loved one scan the places you canâ€™t see â€” in order to spot them. While adult ticks are a little larger, theyâ€™re still difficult to identify.
Running your hands over those parts of your body ticks tend to bite is another way to find them before theyâ€™ve dropped off. (Theyâ€™ll feel like small, unfamiliar, hard nodules on your skin.)
If the Tick Has Dropped Off ...
But if you find a tick on your skin or notice an itchy lesion that doesnâ€™t go away within a few days, that could indicate Lyme disease or some other kind of tick-borne infection. The same is true of a large, bull's-eye-shaped skin lesion â€” something that looks like a red welt surrounded by one or more outer rings of inflamed red skin. This bull's-eye rash is a hallmark of Lyme disease.
If Youâ€™ve Been Bitten by a Tick, Youâ€™ll Want to Remove It ASAP
If you find a tick on your body, youâ€™ll want to remove it as soon as possible. In general, a tick needs to be attached to your body for at least 36 hours to transmit Lyme disease, but other infections can be transmitted within hours or less time.
If you can get to your primary care doctor or dermatologist quickly, he or she can remove the tick with appropriate tools that are sure to get the full tick out.
If removing yourself, use tweezers or commercially available tick-removal tools. â€œGrab the tickâ€™s mouthparts as close to the skin as possible and pull straight out,â€ Ostfeld says. Donâ€™t worry if you squish the tick or leave a small speck of black in your skin. â€œThatâ€™s not a big deal. Swab it with alcohol or something else to prevent infection,â€ he says.
(Despite rumors floating around online, killing or mashing the tick during extraction will not cause it to inject more saliva or fluid into your body.)
â€œThe longer theyâ€™re in you, the more likely they are to transmit pathogens, so you want to get them out as quickly as possible,â€ Ostfeld adds.
See Your Doctor After a Tick Bite If You Notice a Bull's-Eye Rash or Other Infection Symptoms
Do the same if you notice a bite â€” either from a tick you found or from an unknown source â€” thatâ€™s not acting like a mosquito bite. â€œIf the rash is any bigger than a highly localized red spot â€” like a mosquito bite â€” then go see a doctor,â€ he says. Likewise, see your doctor if you feel any flu-like symptoms, muscles aches, or chills within a week to 10 days of the bite, all of which can be indicative of tick-borne infections, he adds.
If a doctor suspects you may have contracted Lyme or some other type of infection, he or she will prescribe antibiotics, either oral or possibly intravenous, to treat the problem.
How Can I Avoid Getting Bitten by a Tick or Contracting Lyme?
Ticks can thrive in a variety of environments. â€œTicks are found in thickets and coastal areas, or in low grasses and herbaceous vegetation,â€ Ostfeld says. â€œBut theyâ€™re predominantly forest creatures.â€ Grassy, bushy, and especially heavily wooded areas are all prime real estate for ticks. Staying away from those environments is your best defense, he says.
But if you do venture into such areas, wear long pants and boots, and take them off as soon as you get home. Ostfeld recommends throwing any clothing you were wearing into the dryer â€” turned to high heat â€” as soon as possible. Ticks love humidity, and theyâ€™ve been shown to survive washing and drying. But toss your clothes in the dryer without wetting them, and the dry, hot conditions should kill them off, he says.
You can also use DEET and other bug repellents to effectively keep ticks away, he says. A chemical called permethrin is available as a spray and when applied to your boots or hiking pants, will kill ticks on contact.
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