During adulthood neurogenesis, or the development of new neurons, largely ceases in most areas of the brain. Yet, in two areas of the brain there is a strong indication that substantial numbers of new neurons are naturally created (in the hippocampus, an area of the brain involved in memory forming, organizing and storing, and the olfactory bulb, involved in the perception of odors).
UVA Health System investigators have made an important discovery in understanding this complex process, which may help scientists create new therapies to promote neurogenesis in the adult brain and re-establish its function in patients suffering from depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other mental disorders, in which adult neurogenesis is impaired.
UVA scientists found that certain types of progenitor cells, called the doublecortin (DCX) â€“ positive neuronal progenitors (or â€œnewborn neuronsâ€), serve a double role in the regulation of creation and elimination of new neurons. Replenishing special cells and maintaining blood, skin and intestinal tissues, progenitor cells usually act as a repair system for the body. This new finding highlights the capability of these cells to clean each other out, which ultimately benefits the regeneration process.
â€œOur study provides the first evidence that DCX+ cells, in addition to serving their function as neuronal precursors in the brain, also function as phagocytes (scavenger cells) by clearing out their dead brethren â€“ and that this process is required to maintain continuous generation of new neurons in the brain.â€
â€œThese findings raise the possibility that this newly discovered process could be manipulated to rejuvenate the brain by regulating the addition of new neurons.â€
This discovery may also shed new light on our understanding of how the process of adult neurogenesis is regulated in the healthy brain, and in turn give insights on diseased brains, where adult neurogenesis is severely impaired, Kipnis adds.
Kevin Lee, PhD, chair of the Department of Neuroscience and professor of neurological surgery says:
â€œThe birth and death of new neurons in the adult brain have been implicated in ongoing learning and memory.
The findings by Kipnis, Ravichandran, Lu and associates are fascinating, because they describe a novel process regulating the production and removal of adult- born neurons. This represents an important step toward identifying mechanisms that might be manipulated to control the number of new neurons in the adult brain. Regulating new adult neurons in this manner could open a novel avenue for modifying basic cognitive functions, including learning.â€
Read more on: cell